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Morphological characteristics of benzoin

Sep. 25, 2019

Pharmacopoeia standard

The benzoin is an irregular small piece that is slightly flat and often binds into a mass. The surface is orange-yellow, with a waxy luster (naturally fat-producing); or an irregular cylindrical shape, a flat block, and the surface is grayish white to pale yellowish white (artificially cut fat). It is crispy, brittle, flat and white, and gradually turns yellowish brown to reddish brown after placement. Heating heats and melts. Aroma, slightly pungent, chewed with a grainy feel.

Original form

(1) benzoin tree (distributed to Indonesia's Sumatra and Java "Yangyang Miscellaneous"): arbor, 10 to 20 meters high. The bark is greenish brown and the twigs are brown stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, long ovate, up to 11 cm long, 4.5 cm wide, margins with irregular teeth, slightly shiny on top, densely stellately pubescently pubescent; Races or panicles axillary and terminally pubescent; pubescent; calyx pubescent; calyx sateately sateately sately sately sately sately sately sessately sessately sessately sessately And the outside of the petals are silvery white silky hairs, inner brownish red; stamens 8 to 10, anthers linear, 2-loculed; ovate upper, ovate, densely pubescently pubescent, lower part 2 to 3, upper single locule, style slender ,maroon. The fruit is oblate, about 2 cm long, grayish brown. Seeds nutty, reddish brown, with 6 light vertical stripes. Wild or cultivated in the rice fields.

(2) Vietnam benzoin (distributed to Vietnam, Laos and Thailand. China's Yunnan Simao, Guangxi also produced): arbor, up to 20 meters. The bark is gray, the young branches are brownish-yellow-like hairs, and the back is smooth. Leaves alternate, ovate, 4.5 to 10 cm long, 2.6 cm wide, apex short acutely pointed, basally round or micro-curvate, entire or suborbicular, slightly dentate, sessile, sessile Outside the furry, he is silvery white fur; the petiole is 0.6 to 10 mm long. Inflorescences connate, axillary or terete, stellately stellately sately sately sately sately sately sately sessately sessately sessately sessately sessately sessately sessately sessately sessate The lanceolate, calyx and petals are densely covered with yellow small stellate hairs; stamens 10, longly 2/3 of corolla lobes; anthers linear, filaments not separated in tube segments, separated into densely stellate hairs; ovary Semi-inferior, ovate, flatly compressed, densely yellow-stellate, 3-loculed, styles glabrous, minute. The fruit is ovate, 10 to 12 mm long, grayish-like hairy, 3-valved. 1 seed, even 2 pieces.


(1) Sumatra benzoin (produced in Indonesia): a dry resin of plant benzoin tree, agglomerated by spherical particles, varying in size, reddish brown to grayish brown outside, with yellow-white and gray-white opaque almond-like particles, surface Rough, not flat. It is crisp at room temperature and softens when heated. Aroma, slightly spicy.

(2) Vietnamese benzoin (produced in Vietnam, Thailand, etc.): a dry resin of plant benzoin, which is a slightly oblate teardrop or agglomerate. The teardrops are about 1 to several centimeters in diameter and about 1 centimeter thick. The outer surface is yellowish brown or stained brown, and the inner surface is milky white. It is crisp at room temperature and softens when heated. The smell is similar to the above. The Institute of Materia Medica of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences reports that China's powdered benzoin tree (distributed in Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong), Qingshan benzoin tree (distributed in Guangxi), and white leaf benzoin tree (distributed in Guangxi, Guangdong) can also produce benzoin. According to the qualitative and quantitative test results, except for the total scented acid content of the two resins of Qingshan benzoin and white benzoin, which are slightly lower than the provisions of the Pharmacopoeia, other indicators of the resin and chemical identification reactions are in compliance with the Pharmacopoeia.

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